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United States of America Bill of Right
Amendment II - A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed
Amendment II – restated in today’s language using original 1828 definitions and original practices (a bit wordy, but far more descriptive): (the definitions follow for each of the words above, first as relevant to the amendment, then with complete descriptions) The following Amendment is written by Ronnie E Cooper © 2009, as it should be understood today.
Amendment II - An adequately ordered force of free people (citizens) constantly ready for protecting, defending, and maintaining their geography in national, but especially in state, local, and home emergencies. This requires the people, that is, it is indispensable, necessary, essential for the people, to have the just liberty of carrying, wearing, holding, and training with weapons of offense, or armor for defense and protection of the body for attack or defense in war or hostility in open or concealed manners. Such arms are maintained by the people to keep off or hinder approach or attack of an enemy or an evil. These rights can be improved by the state, but not violated either positively by contravention or by non-fulfillment or neglect of performance or by process to destroy or hinder; as, to infringe efficacy. Arms are the entire system required, as guns, ammunition, sights, knives, magazines, etc. are included. The arms are the same as used by the regular military for protecting the state, community, and/or home. The government cannot restrict or tax or impede or hinder the distribution or storage or use or procurement of arms by the people!
Key Word Definitions
WELL: In a proper manner; justly; rightly, skillfully, thoroughly; fully, adequately.
REGULATED: Adjusted by rule, method or forms; put in good order; subjected to rules or restrictions.
MILI'TIA: The body of soldiers in a state enrolled for discipline, but not engaged in actual service except in emergencies, but at other times left to pursue their usual occupations.
NECESSARY: That must be; that cannot be otherwise; Indispensable; requisite; essential; that cannot be otherwise without preventing the purpose intended; subjection to law is necessary to the safety of persons and property. Unavoidable; as a necessary inference or consequence from facts or arguments. Acting from necessity or compulsion; opposed to free. Whether man is a necessary or a free agent is a question much discussed.
SECU'RITY: Protection; effectual defense or safety from danger of any kind; That which protects or guards from danger; Freedom from fear or apprehension; confidence of safety; whence, negligence in providing means of defense. Security is dangerous, for it exposes men to attack when unprepared.
FREE: Being at liberty; not being under necessity or restraint, physical or moral; In government, not enslaved; not in a state of vassalage or dependence; subject only to fixed laws, made by consent, and to a regular administration of such laws; not subject to the arbitrary will of a sovereign or lord; as a free state, nation or people. Instituted by a free people, or by consent or choice of those who are to be subjects, and securing private rights and privileges by fixed laws and principles; not arbitrary or despotic; as a free constitution or government. There can be no free government without a democratical branch in the constitution.
STATE: A political body, or body politic; the whole body of people united under one government, whatever may be the form of the government.
RIGHT: Conformity to the will of God, or to his law, the perfect standard of truth and justice. Conformity to human laws, or to other human standard of truth, propriety or justice. When laws are definite, right and wrong are easily ascertained and understood. Justice; that which is due or proper; as, to do right to every man. Property; interest. Just claim; immunity; privilege. All men have a right to the secure enjoyment of life, personal safety, liberty and property.
PEOPLE: The body of persons who compose a community, town, city or nation. The “people” comprehends all classes of inhabitants, considered as a collective body, or any portion of the inhabitants of a city or country.
KEEP: To hold; to retain in one's power or possession; not to lose or part with; To have in custody for security or preservation; To preserve from falling or from danger; to protect; to guard or sustain; To hold in any state; as, to keep in order. To practice; to use habitually; To maintain; not to intermit; as, to keep watch or guard. To conceal; not to tell or disclose. To restrain; to curb. To keep off, to hinder from approach or attack; as, to keep off an enemy or an evil.
BEAR: To carry; to convey; to support and remove from place to place; to wear;
ARMS: Weapons of offense, or armor for defense and protection of the body for attack or defense in war or hostility.
INFRINGE: To break, as contracts; to violate, either positively by contravention, or negatively by non-fulfillment or neglect of performance. To break; to violate; to transgress; to neglect to fulfill or obey; To destroy or hinder; as, to infringe efficacy.
Webster 1828 definitions in full direct form relevant to 2nd Amendment
Full Word Definitions
1. In a proper manner; justly; rightly; not ill or wickedly. James 2. If thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. Genesis 4.
2. Skillfully; with due art; as, the work is well done; he writes well; he rides well; the plot is well laid, and well executed.
3. Sufficiently; abundantly. Lot--beheld all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered every where. Genesis 13.
4. Very much; to a degree that gives pleasure. I liked the entertainment well.
5. Favorably; with praise. All the world speaks well of you.
6. Conveniently; suitable; advantageously. This is all the mind can well contain. I cannot well how to execute this task.
7. To a sufficient degree; perfectly. I know not well how to execute this task.
8. Thoroughly; fully. Let the cloth be well cleansed. Let the steel be well polished. She looketh well to the ways of her household. Proverbs 31.
9. Fully; adequately. We are well able to overcome it. Numbers 13.
10. Far; as, to be well advanced in life. As well as, together with; not less than; one as much as the other; as a sickness long as well as severe. London is the largest city in Europe, as well as the principal banking city. Well enough, in a moderate degree; so as to give satisfaction, or so as to require no alteration. Well is him, seems to be elliptical for well is to him. Well is prefixed to many words, expressing what is right, fit, laudable, or not defective; as well-affected; well-designed; well-directed; well-ordered; well-formed; well-meant; well-minded; well-seasoned; well-tasted. Well is sometimes used elliptically for it is well, and as an expression of satisfaction with what has been said or done; and sometimes it is merely expletive. Well, the work is done, Well, let us go. Well, well, be it so.
REG'ULATE, v. t.
1. To adjust by rule, method or established mode; as, to regulate weights and measures; to regulate the assize of bread; to regulate our moral conduct by the laws of God and of society; to regulate our manners by the customary forms.
2. To put in good order; as, to regulate the disordered state of a nation or its finances.
3. To subject to rules or restrictions; as, to regulate trade; to regulate diet.
REG'ULATED, pp. Adjusted by rule, method or forms; put in good order; subjected to rules or restrictions.
1. That must be; that cannot be otherwise; indispensably requisite. It is necessary that every effect should have a cause.
2. Indispensable; requisite; essential; that cannot be otherwise without preventing the purpose intended. Air is necessary to support animal life; food is necessary to nourish the body; holiness is a necessary qualification for happiness; health is necessary to the enjoyment of pleasure; subjection to law is necessary to the safety of persons and property.
3. Unavoidable; as a necessary inference or consequence from facts or arguments.
4. Acting from necessity or compulsion; opposed to free. Whether man is a necessary or a free agent is a question much discussed.
MILI'TIA, n. [L. from miles, a soldier; Gr. war, to fight, combat, contention. The primary sense of fighting is to strive, struggle, drive, or to strike, to beat, Eng. moil, L. molior; Heb. to labor or toil. ] The body of soldiers in a state enrolled for discipline, but not engaged in actual service except in emergencies; as distinguished from regular troops, whose sole occupation is war or military service. The militia of a country are the able bodied men organized into companies, regiments and brigades,with officers of all grades, and required by law to attend military exercises on certain days only, but at other times left to pursue their usual occupations.
SECU'RITY, n . [L. securitas . ]
1. Protection; effectual defense or saftey from danger of any kind; as a chain of forts erected for the security of the frontiers.
2. That which protects or guards from danger. A navy constitutes the security of Great Britain from invasion.
3. Freedom from fear or apprehension; confidence of safety; whence, negligence in providing means of defense. Security is dangerous, for it exposes men to attack when unprepared. Security in sin is the worst condition of the sinner.
4. Safety; certainty. We have no security for peace with Algiers, but the dread of our navy.
5. Anything given or deposited to secure the payment of a debt, or the performance of a contract; as a bond with surety, a mortgage, the indorsement of a responsible man, a pledge, &c.
6. Something given or done to secure peace or good behavior. Violent and dangerous men are obliged to give security for their good behavior, or for keeping the peace. This security in being bound with one or more sureties in a recognizance to the king or state.
BEAR, v. t. pret. bore; pp. born,borne. [L. fero, pario, porto. The primary sense is to throw out, to bring forth, or in general, to thrust or drive along. ]
1. To support; to sustain; as, to bear a weight or burden.
2. To carry; to convey; to support and remove from place to place; as, "they bear him upon the shoulder;", "the eagle beareth them on her wings. "
3. To wear; to bear as a mark of authority or distinction; as, to bear a sword, a badge, a name; to bear arms in a coat.
4. To keep afloat; as, the water bears a ship.
5. To support or sustain without sinking or yielding; to endure; as, a man can bear severe pain or calamity; or to sustain with proportionate strength, and without injury; as, a man may bear stronger food or drink.
6. To entertain; to carry in the mind; as, to bear a great love for a friend; to bear inveterate hatred to gaming.
7. To suffer; to undergo; as, to bear punishment.
8. To suffer without resentment, or interference to prevent; to have patience; as, to bear neglect or indignities.
9. To admit or be capable of; that is, to suffer or sustain without violence,injury,or change; as, to give words the most favorable interpretation they will bear.
10. To bring forth or produce, as the fruit of plants, or the young of animals; as, to bear apples; to bear children.
11. To give birth to, or be the native place of. Here dwelt the man divine whom Samos bore.
12. To possess and use as power; to exercise; as, to bear sway.
13. To gain or win. Some think to bear it by speaking a great word. [Not now used. The phrase now used is, to bear away. ]
14. To carry on, or maintain; to have; as, to bear a part in conversation.
15. To show or exhibit; to relate; as, to bear testimony or witness. This seems to imply utterance, like the Latin fero, to relate or utter.
16. To sustain the effect, or be answerable for; as, to bear the blame.
17. To sustain, as expense; to supply the means of paying; as, to bear the charges, that is, to pay the expenses.
18. To be the object of. Let me but bear your love, and I'll bear your cares.
19. To behave; to act in any character; as,"hath he borne himself penitent?"
20. To remove, or to endure the effects of; and hence to give satisfaction for. He shall bear their iniquities. Is. 53. Heb. 9. To bear the infirmities of the weak, to bear one another's burdens, is to be charitable towards their faults, to sympathize with them, and to aid them in distress.
21. To bear off, is to restrain; to keep from approach; and in seamanship, to remove to a distance; to keep clear from rubbing against any thing; as, to bear off a blow; to bear off a boat; also, to carry away; as, to bear off stolen goods.
22. To bear down, is to impel or urge; to overthrow or crush by force; as, to bear down an enemy.
23. To bear down upon, to press to overtake; to make all sail to come up with.
24. To bear hard, is to press or urge. Cesar doth bear me hard.
25. To bear on, is to press against; also to carry forward, to press, incite or animate. Confidence hath borne thee on.
26. To bear through, is to conduct or manage; as,"to bear through the consulship. " B. Jonson. Also, to maintain or support to the end; as, religion will bear us through the evils of life.
27. To bear out, is to maintain and support to the end; to defend to the last. Company only can bear a man out in an ill thing.
28. To bear up, to support; to keep from falling. Religious hope bears up the mind under sufferings. To bear up, to keep afloat.
29. To bear a body. A color is said to bear a body in painting, when it is capable of being ground so fine, and mixed so entirely with the oil, as to seem only a very thick oil of the same color. To bear date, is to have the mark of time when written or executed; as, a letter or bond bears date, Jan. 6,1811.
30. To bear a price,is to have a certain price. In common mercantile language,it often signifies or implies, to bear a good or high price.
31. To bear in hand, to amuse with false pretenses; to deceive. I believe this phrase is obsolete, or never used in America.
32. To bear a hand, in seamanship, is to make haste, be quick.
BEAR, v. i. To suffer,as with pain. But man is born to bear. This is unusual in prose; and though admissible,is rendered intransitive, merely by the omission of pain, or other word expressive of evil.
1. To be patient; to endure. I cannot, cannot bear.
2. To produce, as fruit; to be fruitful, in opposition to barrenness. This age to blossom, and the next to bear. Here fruit must be understood.
3. To take effect; to succeed; as, to bring matters to bear.
4. To act in any character. Instruct me how I may bear like a true friar.
5. To be situated as to the point of compass, with respect to something else; as, the land bore E,N. E. from the ship.
6. To bear away, in navigation, is to change the course of a ship, when close hauled, or sailing with a side wind, and make her run before the wind. To bear up, is used in a like sense, from the act of bearing up the helm to the windward. Hence, perhaps, in other cases, the expression may be used to denote tending or moving from.
7. To bear down, is to drive or tend to; to approach with a fair wind; as, the fleet bore down upon the enemy.
8. To bear in, is to run or tend towards; as, a ship bears in with the land; opposed to bear off, or keeping at a greater distance.
9. To bear up, is to tend or move towards; as, to bear up to one another; also, to be supported; to have fortitude; to be firm; not to sink; as, to bear up under afflictions.
10. To bear upon, or against, is to lean upon or against; to act on as weight or force, in any direction, as a column upon its base, or the sides of two inclining objects against each other.
11. To bear against, to approach for attack or seizure; as, "a lion bears against his prey. "
12. To bear upon, to act upon; as, the artillery bore upon the center; or to be pointed or situated so as to affect; as, to bring or plant guns so as to bear upon a fort, or a ship.
13. To bear with, to endure what is unpleasing; to be indulgent; to forbear to resent, oppose, or punish. Reason would I should bear with you. Acts 18. Shall not God avenge his elect, though he bear long with them? Luke 18.
PEOPLE, n. [L. populus. ]
1. The body of persons who compose a community, town, city or nation. We say, the people of a town; the people of London or Paris; the English people. In this sense, the word is not used in the plural, but it comprehends all classes of inhabitants, considered as a collective body, or any portion of the inhabitants of a city or country.
KEEP, v. t. pret. and pp. kept. [L. habeo, and capio. ]
1. To hold; to retain in one's power or possession; not to lose or part with; as, to keep a house or a farm; to keep any thing in the memory, mind or heart.
2. To have in custody for security or preservation. The crown of Stephanus, first king of Hungary,was always kept in the castle of Vicegrade.
3. To preserve; to retain. The Lord God, merciful and gracious, keeping mercy for thousands--Ex. 34.
4. To preserve from falling or from danger; to protect; to guard or sustain. And behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee. Gen. 28. Luke 4.
5. To hold or restrain from departure; to detain. --That I may know what keeps me here with you.
6. To tend; to have the care of. And the Lord God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep it. Gen. 2.
7. To tend; to feed; to pasture; as, to keep a flock of sheep or a herd of cattle in a yard or in a field. He keeps his horses on oats or on hay.
8. To preserve in any tenor or state. Keep a stiff rein. Keep the constitution sound.
9. To regard; to attend to. While the stars and course of heaven I keep--
10. To hold in any state; as, to keep in order.
11. To continue any state, course or action; as, to keep silence; to keep the same road or the same pace; to keep reading or talking; to keep a given distance.
12. To practice; to do or perform; to obey; to observe in practice; not to neglect or violate; as, to keep the laws, statutes or commandments of God.
13. To fulfill; to perform; as, to keep one's word,promise or covenant.
14. To practice; to use habitually; as, to keep bad hours.
15. To copy carefully. Her servant's eyes were fix'd upon her face, And as she moved or turned,her motions viewed, Her measures kept, and step by step pursued.
16. To observe or solemnize.
17. To board; to maintain; to supply with necessaries of life. The men are kept at a moderate price per week.
18. To have in the house; to entertain; as, to keep lodgers.
19. To maintain; not to intermit; as, to keep watch or guard.
20. To hold in one's own bosom; to confine to one's own knowledge; not to disclose or communicate to others; not to betray; as, to keep a secret; to keep one's own counsel.
21. To have in pay; as, to keep a servant.
22. To keep back, to reserve; to withhold; not to disclose or communicate. I will keep nothing back from you. Jer. 42.
23. To restrain;; to prevent from advancing. Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sins. Ps. 19.
24. To reserve; to withhold; not to deliver. Acts. 5. To keep company with, to frequent the society of; to associate with. Let youth keep company with the wise and good. To accompany; to go with; as, to keep company with one on a journey or voyage. To keep down, to prevent from rising; not to lift or suffer to be raised. To keep in, to prevent from escape; to hold in confinement.
25. To conceal; not to tell or disclose.
26. To restrain; to curb. To keep off, to hinder from approach or attack; as, to keep off an enemy or an evil. To keep under, to restrain; to hold in subjection; as, to keep under an antagonist or a conquered country; to keep under the appetites and passions. To keep up, to maintain; to prevent from falling or diminution; as, to keep up the price of goods; to keep up one's credit.
27. To maintain; to continue; to hinder from ceasing. In joy, that which keeps up the action is the desire to continue it. keep out, to hinder from entering or taking possession. To keep bed, to remain in bed without rising; to be confined to one's bed.
28. To keep house, to maintain a family state. His income enables him to keep house. To remain in the house; to be confined. His feeble health obliges him to keep house. To keep from, to restrain; to prevent approach. To keep a school, to maintain or support it; as, the town or its inhabitants keep ten schools; more properly, to govern and instruct or teach a school, as a preceptor.
KEEP, v. i. To remain in any state; as, to keep at a distance; to keep aloft; to keep near; to keep in the house; to keep before or behind; to keep in favor; to keep out of company, or out of reach.
1. To last; to endure; not to perish or be impaired. Seek for winter's use apples that will keep. If the malt is not thoroughly dried,the ale it makes will not keep.
2. To lodge; to dwell; to reside for a time. Knock at the study, where, they say, he keeps. To keep to, to adhere strictly; not to neglect or deviate from; as, to keep to old customs; to keep to a rule; to keep to one's word or promise. To keep on, to go forward; to proceed; to continue to advance. To keep up, to remain unsubdued; or not to be confined to one's bed. In popular language, this word signifies to continue; to repeat continually; not to cease.
KEEP, n. Custody; guard. [Little used. ]
1. Colloquially, case; condition; as in good keep.
2. Guardianship; restraint. [Little used. ]
3. A place of confinement; in old castles,the dungeon.
ARMS, n. plu. [L. arma. ]
1. Weapons of offense, or armor for defense and protection of the body.
2. War; hostility. Arms and the man I sing. To be in arms, to be in a state of hostility, or in a military life. To arms is a phrase which denotes a taking arms for war or hostility; particularly, a summoning to war. To take arms, is to arm for attack or defense. Bred to arms denotes that a person has been educated to the profession of a soldier.
3. The ensigns armorial of a family; consisting of figures and colors borne in shields, banners, &c. , as marks of dignity and distinction, and descending from father to son.
4. In law, arms are any thing which a man takes in his hand in anger, to strike or assault another.
5. In botany, one of the seven species of fulcra or props of plants, enumerated by Linne and others. The different species of arms or armor, are prickles, thorns, forks and stings, which seem intended to protect the plants from injury by animals.
6. Sire arms, are such as may be charged with powder, as cannon, muskets, mortars, &c.
7. A stand of arms consists of a musket, bayonet, cartridge-box and belt, with a sword. But for common soldiers a sword is not necessary.
8. In falconry, arms are the legs of a hawk from the thigh to the foot.
INFRINGE, v. t. infrinj'. [L. infringo; in and frango,to break. See Break. ]
1. To break, as contracts; to violate, either positively by contravention, or negatively by non-fulfillment or neglect of performance. A prince or a private person infringes an agreement or covenant by neglecting to perform its conditions, as well as by doing what is stipulated not to be done.
2. To break; to violate; to transgress; to neglect to fulfill or obey; as, to infringe a law.
3. To destroy or hinder; as, to infringe efficacy. [Little used. ]
INFRING'ED, pp. Broken; violated; transgresses.
INFRINGEMENT, n. infrinj'ment. Act of violating; breach; violation; non-fulfillment; as the infringement of a treaty, compact or other agreement; the infringement of a law or constitution.
FREE, n. [Heb. See Frank. ]
1. Being at liberty; not being under necessity or restraint, physical or moral; a word of general application to the body, the will or mind, and to corporations.
2. In government, not enslaved; not in a state of vassalage or dependence; subject only to fixed laws, made by consent, and to a regular administration of such laws; not subject to the arbitrary will of a sovereign or lord; as a free state, nation or people.
3. Instituted by a free people, or by consent or choice of those who are to be subjects, and securing private rights and privileges by fixed laws and principles; not arbitrary or despotic; as a free constitution or government. There can be no free government without a democratical branch in the constitution.
1. Conformity to the will of God, or to his law, the perfect standard of truth and justice. In the literal sense, right is a straight line of conduct, and wrong a crooked one. Right therefore is rectitude or straightness, and perfect rectitude is found only in an infinite Being and his will.
2. Conformity to human laws, or to other human standard of truth, propriety or justice. When laws are definite, right and wrong are easily ascertained and understood. In arts, there are some principles and rules which determine what is right. In many things indifferent, or left without positive law, we are to judge what is right by fitness or propriety, by custom, civility or other circumstances.
3. Justice; that which is due or proper; as, to do right to every man. Long love to her has borne the faithful knight, and well deserv'd had fortune done him right.
4. Freedom from error; conformity with truth or fact. Seldom your opinions err, your eyes are always in the right.
5. Just claim; legal title; ownership; the legal power of exclusive possession and enjoyment. In hereditary monarchies, a right to the throne vests in the heir on the decease of the king. A deed vests the right of possession in the purchaser of land. Right and possession are very different things. We often have occasion to demand and sue for rights not in possession.
6. Just claim by courtesy, customs, or the principles of civility and decorum. Every man has a right to civil treatment. The magistrate has a right to respect.
7. Just claim by sovereignty; prerogative. God, as the author of all things, has a right to govern and dispose of them at his pleasure.
8. That which justly belongs to one. Born free, he sought his right.
9. Property; interest. A subject in his prince may claim a right.
10. Just claim; immunity; privilege. All men have a right to the secure enjoyment of life, personal safety, liberty and property. We deem the right of trial by jury invaluable, particularly in the case of crimes. Rights are natural, civil, political, religious, personal, and public.
11. Authority; legal power. We have no right to disturb others in the enjoyment of their religious opinions.
12. In the United States, a tract of land; or a share or proportion of property, as in a mine or manufactory.
13. The side opposite to the left; as on the right. Look to the right.
1. To rights, in a direct line; straight. [Unusual. ]
2. Directly; soon.
To set to rights, To put to rights, to put into good order; to adjust; to regulate what is out of order.
Bill of rights, a list of rights; a paper containing a declaration of rights, or the declaration itself.
Writ of right, a writ which lies to recover lands in fee simple, unjustly withheld from the true owner.