US Constitution
This document was last modified 1/21/2011 11:06:38 AM
Bill of Rights 1st


United States of America Bill of Right

Amendment I - [1] Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; [2] or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, [3] and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Amendment II – restated in today’s language using original 1828 definitions and original practices (a bit wordy, but far more descriptive): (the definitions follow for each of the words above, first as relevant  to the amendment, then  with complete descriptions) The following Amendment is written by Ronnie E Cooper © 2009, as it should be understood today.

Amendment I - TBD-Inprocess

[1] The USA Congress [and by logical extension all parts of the federal government which can have NO jurisdiction in any case above Congress for making law] is forever obligated to refuse and deny law compelling or constraining specific establishing, founding, ratifying, or ordaining any system of faith and worship [in simple terms, Congress cannot establish a national religion or moral code, only a code or set of moral rules for itself] (especially for the practice of moral duties without a belief in a divine lawgiver, and without reference to his will or commands) whether false or true and especially not forbidding, interdicting, or debarring the Christian Religion, [note the Church is not another term for religion, it is the means of exercise of the Christian religion, hence the State is separated from the church] it being at liberty, not being under necessity or restraint, physical or moral in its use, practice, or exertions and movements customary in the performance of religion (again primarily the many Christian ones, but also others).

Key Word Definitions

Webster 1828 definitions in short direct form relevant to 1st Amendment


Webster 1828 definitions in Long, complete definitions:

Congress: CONGRESS, n. [L., to come together; to go or step; a step. See Grade and Degree.] 1. A meeting of individuals; an assembly of envoys, commissioners, deputies, &c., particularly a meeting of the representatives of several courts, to concert measures for their common good, or to adjust their mutual concerns. 2. The assembly of delegates of the several British Colonies in America, which united to resist the claims of Great Britain in 1774, and which declared the colonies independent. 3. The assembly of the delegates of the several United States, after the declaration of Independence, and until the adoption of the present constitution, and the organization of the government in 1789. During these periods, the congress consisted of one house only. 4. The assembly of senators and representatives of the several states of North America, according to the present constitution, or political compact, by which they are united in a federal republic; the legislature of the United States, consisting of two houses, a senate and a house of representatives. Members of the senate are elected for six years, but the members of the house of representatives are chosen for two years only. Hence the united body of senators and representatives for the two years, during which the representatives hold their seats is called one congress. Thus we say the first or second session of the sixteenth congress. 5. A meeting of two or more persons in a contest; an encounter; a conflict. 6. The meeting of the sexes in sexual commerce.

shall: 1. Shall is primarily in the present, and in our mother tongue was followed by a verb in the infinitive, like other verbs. "Ic sceal fram the beon gefullod." I have need to be baptized of thee. "Ic nu sceal singan sar-cwidas." I must now sing mornful songs. We still use shall and should before another verb in the infinitive, without the sign to ; but significance of shall is considerably deflected from its primitive sense. It is now treated as a mere auxiliary to other verbs, serving to form some of the tenses. In the present tense, shall, before a verb in the infinitive, forms the future tense; but its force and effect are different with different persons or personal pronouns. Thus in the first person, shall simply foretells or declares what will take place; as, I or we shall ride to town on Monday. This declaration simply informs another of a fact that is to take place. The sense of shall here is changed from an expression of need or duty, to that of previous statement or information, grounded on intention or resolution. When uttered with emphasis, "I shall go," it expresses firm determination, but not a promise. 2. In the second and third persons, shall implies a promise, command or determination. "You shall receive your wages," "he shall receive his wages," imply that you or he ought to receive them; but usage gives these phrases the force of a promise in the person uttering them. When shall is uttered with emphasis in such phrases, it expresses determination in the speaker, and implies an authority to enforce the act. "Do you refuse to go? Does he refuse to go? But you or he shall go." 3. Shall I go, shall he go, interrogatively, asks, for permission or direction. But shall you go, asks for information of another's intention. 4. But after another verb, shall, in the third person, simply foretells. He says that he shall leave town to-morrow. So also in the second person; you say that you shall ride to-morrow. 5. After if, and some verbs which express condition or supposition, shall, in all the persons, simply foretells; as, If I shall say, or we shall say, Thou shalt say, ye or you shall say, He shall say, they shall say . 6. Should, in the first person, implies a conditional event. "I should have written a letter yesterday, had I not been interrupted." Or it expresses obligation, and that in all the persons. I should, have paid the bill on demand; it was my duty, your duty, his duty to Thou shouldest, pay the bill on demand, but it was not paid. He should, You should, 7. Should, though properly the past tense of shall, is often used to express a contingent future event; as, if it should rain to-morrow; if you should go to London next week; if he should arrive within a month. In like manner after though, grant, admit, allow .

make: MAKE, v.t. pret. and pp. made. 1. To compel; to constrain. They should be made to rise at an early hour. 2. To form of materials; to fashion; to mold into shape; to cause to exist in a different form, or as a distinct thing. He fashioned it with a graving tool, after he had made it a molten calf. Ex.32. God not only made, but created; not only made the work, but the materials. 3. To create; to cause to exist; to form from nothing. God made the materials of the earth and of all worlds. 4. To compose; to constitute as parts, materials or ingredients united in a whole. These several sums make the whole amount. The heaven, the air, the earth, and boundless sea, Make but one temple for the deity. 5. To form by art. And art with her contending, doth aspire T'excel the natural with made delights. 6. To produce or effect, as the agent. Call for Sampson, that he may make us sport. Judges.16. 7. To produce, as the cause; to procure; to obtain. Good tillage is necessary to make good crops. Wealth maketh many friends. Prov.19. 8. To do; to perform; to execute; as, to make a journey; to make a long voyage. 9. To cause to have any quality, as by change or alteration. Wealth may make a man proud; beauty may make a woman vain; a due sense of human weakness should make us humble. 10. To bring into any state or condition; to constitute. See I have made thee a god to Pharaoh. Ex.7. Who made thee a prince and a judge over us? Ex.2. 11. To contract; to establish; as, to make friendship. 12. To keep; as, to make abode. 13. To raise to good fortune; to secure in riches or happiness; as when it is said, he is made for this world. Who makes or ruins with a smile or frown. 14. To suffer. He accuses Neptune unjustly, who makes shipwreck a second time. 15. To incur; as, to make a loss. [Improper.] 16. To commit; to do. I will neither plead my age nor sickness in excuse of the faults which I made. [Little used.] 17. To intend or to do; to purpose to do. Gomez, what mak'st thou here, with a whole brotherhood of city bailiffs? [Not used.] We now say, what doest thou here? 18. To raise, as, profit; to gain; to collect; as, to make money in trade or by husbandry; to make an estate by steady industry. 19. To discover; to arrive in sight of; a seaman's phrase, They made the land at nine o'clock on the larboard bow,distant five leagues. 20. To reach; to arrive at; as, to make a port or harbor; a seaman's phrase. 21. To gain by advance; as, to make little way with a head wind; we made our way to the next village. This phrase often implies difficulty. 22. To provide; as, to make a dinner or entertainment. 23. To put or place; as, to make a difference between strict right and expedience. 24. To turn; to convert, as to use. Whate'er they catch, Their fury makes an instrument of war. 25. To represent. He is not the fool you make him, that is, as your representation exhibits him. 26. To constitute; to form. It is melancholy to think that sensual pleasure makes the happiness of a great part of mankind. 27. To induce; to cause. Self-confidence makes a man rely too much on his own strength and resources. 28. To put into a suitable or regular form for use; as, to make a bed. 29. To fabricate; to forge. He made the story himself. 30. To compose; to form and write; as, to make verses or an oration. 31. To cure; to dry and prepare for preservation; as, to make hay.

no: adv. 1. A word of denial or refusal, expressing a negative, and equivalent to nay and not. When it expresses a negative answer, it is opposed to yes or yea. Will you go? It is frequently used in denying propositions, and opposed to affirmation or concession. "That I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no." Exodus 16. No, in this use, is deemed less elegant than not, but the use is very general. 2. After another negative, it repeats the negation with great emphasis. There is none righteous, no, not one. Romans 3. I Corinthians 5. Sometimes it follows an affirmative proposition in like manner, but still it denies with emphasis and gives force to the following negative. To whom we gave place by subjection, no, not for an hour. Galatians 2. Sometimes it begins a sentence with a like emphatical signification, strengthening the following negative. No, not the bow which so adorns the skies, so glorious is, or boasts so many dyes. 3. Not in any degree; as no longer; no shorter; no more; no less. 4. When no is repeated, it expresses negation or refusal with emphasis; as no, no.

law: LAW, n. [L. lex; from the root of lay. See lay. A law is that which is laid, set or fixed, like statute, constitution, from L. statuo.] 1. A rule, particularly an established or permanent rule, prescribed by the supreme power of a state to its subjects, for regulating their actions, particularly their social actions. Laws are imperative or mandatory, commanding what shall be done; prohibitory, restraining from what is to be forborn; or permissive, declaring what may be done without incurring a penalty. The laws which enjoin the duties of piety and morality, are prescribed by God and found in the Scriptures. Law is beneficence acting by rule. 2. Municipal law, is a rule of civil conduct prescribed by the supreme power of a state, commanding what its subjects are to do, and prohibiting what they are to forbear; a statute. Municipal or civil laws are established by the decrees, edicts or ordinances of absolute princes, as emperors and kings, or by the formal acts of the legislatures of free states. Law therefore is sometimes equivalent to decree, edict, or ordinance. 3. Law of nature, is a rule of conduct arising out of the natural relations of human beings established by the Creator, and existing prior to any positive precept. Thus it is a law of nature, that one man should not injure another, and murder and fraud would be crimes, independent of any prohibition from a supreme power. 4. Laws of animal nature, the inherent principles by which the economy and functions of animal bodies are performed, such as respiration, the circulation of the blood, digestion, nutrition, various secretions, &c. 5. Laws of vegetation, the principles by which plats are produced, and their growth carried on till they arrive to perfection. 6. Physical laws, or laws of nature. The invariable tendency or determination of any species of matter to a particular form with definite properties, and the determination of a body to certain motions, changes, and relations, which uniformly take place in the same circumstances, is called a physical law. These tendencies or determinations, whether called laws or affections of matter, have been established by the Creator, and are, with a peculiar felicity of expression, denominated in Scripture, ordinances of heaven. 7. Laws of nations, the rules that regulate the mutual intercourse of nations or states. These rules depend on natural law, or the principles of justice which spring from the social state; or they are founded on customs, compacts, treaties, leagues and agreements between independent communities. By the law of nations, we are to understand that code of public instruction, which defines the rights and prescribes the duties of nations, in their intercourse with each other. 8. Moral law, a law which prescribes to men their religious and social duties, in other words, their duties to God and to each other. The moral law is summarily contained in the decalogue or ten commandments, written by the finger of God on two tables of stone, and delivered to Moses on mount Sinai. Ex. 20. 9. Ecclesiastical law, a rule of action prescribed for the government of a church; otherwise called canon law. 10. Written law, a law or rule of action prescribed or enacted by a sovereign, and promulgated and recorded in writing; a written statute, ordinance, edict or decree. 11. Unwritten or common law, a rule of action which derives its authority from long usage, or established custom, which has been immemorially received and recognized by judicial tribunals. As this law can be traced to no positive statutes, its rules or principles are to be found only in the records of courts, and in the reports of judicial decisions. 12. By-law, a law of a city, town or private corporation. [See By.] 13. Mosaic law, the institutions of Moses, or the code of laws prescribed to the Jews, as distinguished from the gospel. 14. Ceremonial law, the Mosaic institutions which prescribe the external rites and ceremonies to be observed by the Jews, as distinct from the moral precepts, which are of perpetual obligation. 15. A rule of direction; a directory; as reason and natural conscience. These, having not the law, as a law to themselves. Rom. 2. 16. That which governs or has a tendency to rule; that which has the power of controlling. But I see another law in my members warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members. Romans 7. 17. The word of God; the doctrines and precepts of God, or his revealed will. But his delight is in the law of the Lord, and in his law doth he meditate day and night. Ps. 1. 18. The Old Testament. Is it not written in your law, I said, ye are gods? John 10. 19. The institutions of Moses, as distinct from the other parts of the Old Testament; as the law and the prophets. 20. A rule or axiom of science or art; settled principle; as the laws of versification or poetry. 21. Law martial, or martial law, the rules ordained for the government of an army or military force. 22. Marine laws, rules for the regulation of navigation, and the commercial intercourse of nations. 23. Commercial law, law-merchant, the system of rules by which trade and commercial intercourse are regulated between merchants. 24. Judicial process; prosecution of right in courts of law. Tom Touchy is a fellow famous for taking the law of every body. Hence the phrase, to go to law, to prosecute; to seek redress in a legal tribunal. 25. Jurisprudence; as in the title, Doctor of Laws. 26. In general, law is a rule of action prescribed for the government of rational beings or moral agents, to which rule they are bound to yield obedience, in default of which they are exposed to punishment; or law is a settled mode or course of action or operation in irrational beings and in inanimate bodies. Civil law, criminal law. [See Civil and Criminal.] Laws of honor. [See Honor.] Law language, the language used in legal writings and forms, particularly the Norman dialect or Old French, which was used in judicial proceedings from the days of William the conqueror to the 36th year of Edward III. Wager of law, a species of trial formerly used in England, in which the defendant gave security that he would, on a certain day, make his law, that is, he would make oath that he owed nothing to the plaintiff, and would produce eleven of his neighbors as compurgators, who should swear that they believed in their consciences that he had sworn the truth.

respecting: RESPECT'ING, ppr. Regarding; having regard to; relating to. This word, like concerning, has reference to a single word or to a sentence. In the sentence, "his conduct respecting us is commendable," respecting has reference to conduct. But when we say, "respecting a further appropriation of money, it is to be observed, that the resources of the country are inadequate," respecting has reference to the whole subsequent clause or sentence.

an: a. [L. unus, una, unum; Gr.] One; noting an individual, either definitely, known, certain, specified, or understood; or indefinitely, not certain, known, or specified. Definitely, as "Noah built an ark of Gopher wood." "Paul was an eminent apostle." Indefinitely, as "Bring me an orange." Before a consonant the letter n is dropped, as a man; but our ancestors wrote an man, an king. This letter represents an definitely, or indefinitely. Definitely, as "I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God." Ex. 6. Indefinitely, as "the province of a judge is to decide controversies." An being the same word as one, should not be used with it; "such an one" is tautology; the true phrase is such one. Although an, a and one, are the same word, and always have the same sense, yet by custom, an and a are used exclusively as a definite adjective, and one is used in numbering. Where our ancestors wrote an, twa, thry, we now use one, two, three. So an and a are never used except with a noun; but one like other adjectives, is sometimes used without its noun, and as a substitute for it; "one is at a loss to assign a reason for such conduct."

establishment:, n. The act of establishing, founding, ratifying or ordaining. 1. Settlement;; fixed state. 2. Confirmation; ratification of what has been settled or made. 3. Settled regulation; form; ordinance; system of laws; constitution of government. Bring in that establishment by which all men should be contained in duty. 4. Fixed or stated allowance for subsistence; income; salary. His excellency--might gradually lessen your establishment. 5. That which is fixed or established; as a permanent military force, a fixed garrison, a local government, an agency, a factory, &c. The king has establishments to support, in the four quarters of the globe. 6. The episcopal form of religion, so called in England. 7. Settlement or final rest. We set up our hopes and establishment here.

of: prep. ov. [Gr.] 1. From or out of; proceeding from, as the cause, source, means, author or agent bestowing. I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered to you. 1Cor. 11. For it was of the Lord to harden their hearts. Josh. 11. It is of the Lord's mercies that we are not consumed. Lam. 3. The whole disposing thereof is of the Lord. Prov. 16. Go, inquire of the Lord for me. 2Chron. 34. That holy thing that shall be born of thee. Luke 1. Hence of is the sign of the genitive case, the case that denotes production; as the son of man, the son proceeding from man, produced from man. This is the primary sense, although we now say, produced by man. "Part of these were slain;" that is, a number separate, for part denotes a division; the sense then is, a number from or out of the whole were slain. So also, "some of these were slain;" that is, some from or out of others. "I have known him of old, or of a child;" that is, from old times, from a child. "He is of the race of kings;" that is, descended from kings. "He is of noble blood or birth, or of ignoble origin." "No particle of matter, or no body can move of itself;" that is, by force or strength proceeding from itself, derived from itself. "The quarrel is not now of fame and tribute, or of wrongs done;" that is, from fame or wrongs, as the cause, and we may render it concerning, about, relating to. "Of this little he had some to spare;" that is, some from the whole. It may be rendered out of. "Of all our heroes thou canst boast alone;" that is, thou alone from the number of heroes. This may be rendered among. "The best of men, the most renowned of all;" that is, the best from the number of men, the most renowned from the whole; denoting primarily separation, like part. "I was well entertained of the English Consul;" that is, entertained from the Consul; my entertainment was from the Consul. This use is obsolete, and we use by in lieu of it. "This does of right belong to us;" that is, from right, de jure; our title proceeds from right. "The chariot was all of cedar;" that is, made from cedar. So we say, made of gold, made of clay; an application corresponding with our modern use of from; manufactured from wool, or from raw materials. Hence we say, cloth consisting of wool. "This is a scheme of his own devising;" that is, from his own devising or device. "If any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth;" that is, as from the ability, as the source of action. "Of happy, he is become miserable;" that is, from happy; from being happy, he has passed to being miserable. "Of necessity this must prove ruinous;" that is, from necessity, as the cause or source. "Of a hundred take fifty;" that is, from a hundred, or out of a hundred, from among a hundred. Of sometimes implies a part or share. It is a duty to communicate of those blessings we have received. From is then the primary sense of this preposition; a sense retained in off, the same word differently written for distinction. But this sense is appropriately lost in many of its applications; as a man of genius, a man of courage, a man of rare endowments, a fossil of a red color, or of a hexagonal figure. he lost all hope of relief. This is an affair of the cabinet. He is a man of decayed fortune. What is the price of corn? We say that of, in these and similar phrases, denotes property or possession, making of the sign of the genitive or possessive case. These applications, however, all proceeded from the same primary sense. That which proceeds from or is produced by a person, is naturally the property or possession of that person, as the son of John; and this idea of property in the course of time would pass to things not thus produced, but still bearing a relation to another thing. Thus we say, the father of a son, as well as the son of a father. In both senses, other languages also use the same word, as in the French de, de la, and Italian di, dell. Of then has one primary sense, from, departing, issuing, proceeding from or out of, and a derivative sense denoting possession or property.

religion:, n. relij'on. [L. religio, from religo, to bind anew; re and ligo, to bind. This word seems originally to have signified an oath or vow to the gods, or the obligation of such an oath or vow, which was held very sacred by the Romans.] 1. Religion, in its most comprehensive sense, includes a belief in the being and perfections of God, in the revelation of his will to man, in man's obligation to obey his commands, in a state of reward and punishment, and in man's accountableness to God; and also true godliness or piety of life, with the practice of all moral duties. It therefore comprehends theology, as a system of doctrines or principles, as well as practical piety; for the practice of moral duties without a belief in a divine lawgiver, and without reference to his will or commands, is not religion. 2. Religion, as distinct from theology, is godliness or real piety in practice, consisting in the performance of all known duties to God and our fellow men, in obedience to divine command, or from love to God and his law. James 1. 3. Religion, as distinct from virtue, or morality, consists in the performance of the duties we owe directly to God, from a principle of obedience to his will. Hence we often speak of religion and virtue, as different branches of one system, or the duties of the first and second tables of the law. Let us with caution indulge the supposition, that morality can be maintained without religion. 4. Any system of faith and worship. In this sense, religion comprehends the belief and worship of pagans and Mohammedans, as well as of christians; any religion consisting in the belief of a superior power or powers governing the world, and in the worship of such power or powers. Thus we speak of the religion of the Turks, of the Hindoos, of the Indians, &c. as well as of the christian religion. We speak of false religion, as well as of true religion. 5. The rites of religion; in the plural.

or:, a termination of Latin nouns, is a contraction of vir, a man, or from the same radix. The same word vir, is in our mother tongue, wer, and from this we have the English termination er. It denotes an agent, as in actor, creditor. We annex it to many words of English origin, as in lessor, as we do er to words of Latin and Greek origin, as in astronomer, laborer. In general, or is annexed to words of Latin, and er to those of English origin.

OR, conj. [It seems that or is a mere contraction of other.] A connective that marks an alternative. "You may read or may write;" that is, you may do one of the things at your pleasure, but not both. It corresponds to either. You may either ride to London, or to Windsor. It often connects a series of words or propositions, presenting a choice of either. He may study law or medicine or divinity, or he may enter into trade. Or sometimes begins a sentence, but in this case it expresses an alternative with the foregoing sentence. Matt. 7 and 9. In poetry, or is sometimes used for either. For thy vast bounties are so numberless, that them or to conceal or else to tell is equally impossible. Or is often used to express an alternative of terms, definitions or explanations of the same thing in different words. Thus we say, a thing is a square, or a figure under four equal sides and angles. Or ever. In this phrase, or is supposed to be a corruption of ere.

prohibiting:, ppr. Forbidding; interdicting; debarring.

the:, an adjective or definitive adjective. 1. This adjective is used as a definitive, that is, before nouns which are specific or understood; or it is used to limit their signification to a specific thing or things, or to describe them; as the laws of the twelve tables. The independent tribunals of justice in our country, are the security or private rights,and the best bulwark against arbitrary power. The sun is the source of light and heat. This he calls the preaching of the cross. 2. The is also used rhetorically before a noun in the singular number, to denote a species by way of distinction; a single thing representing the whole. The fig tree putteth forth her green figs; the almond tree shall flourish; the grasshopper shall be a burden. 3. In poetry, the sometimes loses the final vowel before another vowel. Th' adorning thee with so much art, Is but a barb'rous skill. 4. The is used before adjectives in the comparative and superlative degree. The longer we continue in sin, the more difficult it is to reform. The most strenuous exertions will be used to emancipate Greece. The most we can do is to submit; the best we can do; the worst that can happen.

free: FREE, n. [Heb. See Frank.] 1. Being at liberty; not being under necessity or restraint, physical or moral; a word of general application to the body, the will or mind, and to corporations. 2. In government, not enslaved; not in a state of vassalage or dependence; subject only to fixed laws, made by consent, and to a regular administration of such laws; not subject to the arbitrary will of a sovereign or lord; as a free state, nation or people. 3. Instituted by a free people, or by consent or choice of those who are to be subjects, and securing private rights and privileges by fixed laws and principles; not arbitrary or despotic; as a free constitution or government. There can be no free government without a democratical branch in the constitution. 4. Not imprisoned, confined or under arrest; as, the prisoner is set free. 5. Unconstrained; unrestrained; not under compulsion or control. A man is free to pursue his own choice; he enjoys free will. 6. Permitted; allowed; open; not appropriated; as, places of honor and confidence are free to all; we seldom hear of a commerce perfectly free. 7. Not obstructed; as, the water has a free passage or channel; the house is open to a free current of air. 8. Licentious; unrestrained. The reviewer is very free in his censures. 9. Open; candid; frank; ingenuous; unreserved; as, we had a free conversation together. Will you be free and candid to your friend? 10. Liberal in expenses; not parsimonious; as a free purse; a man is free to give to all useful institutions. 11. Gratuitous; not gained by importunity or purchase. He made him a free offer of his services. It is a free gift. The salvation of men is of free grace. 12. Clear of crime or offense; guiltless; innocent. My hands are guilty, but my heart is free. 13. Not having feeling or suffering; clear; exempt; with from; as free from pain or disease; free from remorse. 14. Not encumbered with; as free from a burden. 15. Open to all, without restriction or without expense; as a free school. 16. Invested with franchises; enjoying certain immunities; with of; as a man free of the city of London. 17. Possessing without vassalage or slavish conditions; as free of his farm. 18. Liberated from the government or control of parents, or of a guardian or master. A son or an apprentice, when of age, is free. 19. Ready; eager; not dull; acting without spurring or shipping; as a free horse. 20. Genteel; charming. [Not in use.]

FREE, v.t. 1. To remove from a thing any encumbrance or obstruction; to disengage from; to rid; to strip; to clear; as, to free the body from clothes; to free the feet from fetters; to free a channel from sand. 2. To set at liberty; to rescue or release from slavery, captivity or confinement; to loose. The prisoner is freed from arrest. 3. To disentangle; to disengage. 4. To exempt. He that is dead is freed from sin. Rom. 6. 5. To manumit; to release from bondage; as, to free a slave. 6. To clear from water, as a ship by pumping. 7. To release from obligation or duty. To free from or free of, is to rid of, by removing, in any manner.

exercise: EX'ERCISE, n. s as z. [L. exercitium, from exerceo; Eng. work.] In a general sense, any kind of work, labor or exertion of body. Hence, 1. Use; practice; the exertions and movements customary in the performance of business; as the exercise of an art, trade, occupation, or profession. 2. Practice; performance; as the exercise of religion. 3. Use; employment; exertion; as the exercise of the eyes or of the senses, or of any power of body or mind. 4. Exertion of the body, as conducive to health; action; motion, by labor, walking, riding, or other exertion. The wise for cure on exercise depend. 5. Exertion of the body for amusement, or for instruction; the habitual use of the limbs for acquiring an art, dexterity, or grace, as in fencing, dancing, riding; or the exertion of the muscles for invigorating the body. 6. Exertion of the body and mind or faculties for improvement, as in oratory, in painting or statuary. 7. Use or practice to acquire skill; preparatory practice. Military exercises consist in using arms, in motions, marches and evolutions. Naval exercise consists in the use or management of artillery, and in the evolutions of fleets. 8. Exertion of the mind; application of the mental powers. 9. Task; that which is appointed for one to perform. 10. Act of divine worship. 11. A lesson or example for practice.

EX'ERCISE, v.t. [L. exerceo.] 1. In a general sense, to move; to exert; to cause to act, in any manner; as, to exercise the body or the hands; to exercise the mind, the powers of the mind, the reason or judgment. 2. To use; to exert; as, to exercise authority or power. 3. To use for improvement in skill; as, to exercise arms. 4. To exert one's powers or strength; to practice habitually; as, to exercise one's self in speaking or music. 5. To practice; to perform the duties of; as, to exercise an office. 6. To train to use; to discipline; to cause to perform certain acts, as preparatory to service; as, to exercise troops. 7. To task; to keep employed; to use efforts. Herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of offense towards God and men. Acts.24. 8. To use; to employ. 9. To busy; to keep busy in action, exertion or employment. 10. To pain or afflict; to give anxiety to; to make uneasy.

thereof: ',adv. [there and of.] Of that or this. In the day thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die. Gen.2.

abridging:, ppr. shortening; lessening; depriving; debarring.

freedom:, n. 1. A state of exemption from the power or control of another; liberty; exemption from slavery, servitude or confinement. Freedom is personal, civil, political, and religious. [See Liberty.] 2. Particular privileges; franchise; immunity; as the freedom of a city. 3. Power of enjoying franchises. 4. Exemption from fate, necessity, or any constraint in consequence of predetermination or otherwise; as the freedom of the will. 5. Any exemption from constraint or control. 6. Ease or facility of doing any thing. He speaks or acts with freedom. 7. Frankness; boldness. He addressed his audience with freedom. 8. License; improper familiarity; violation of the rules of decorum; with a plural. Beware of what are called innocent freedoms. speech:, n. 1. The faculty of uttering articulate sounds or words, as in human beings; the faculty of expressing thoughts by words or articulate sounds. Speech was given to man by his Creator for the noblest purposes. 2. Language; words as expressing ideas. The acts of God to human ears cannot without process of speech be told. 3. A particular language, as distinct form others. Ps. 19. 4. That which is spoken; words uttered in connection and expressing thoughts. You smile at my speech. 5. Talk; mention; common saying. The duke did of me demand, what was the speech among the londoners concerning the French journey. 6. Formal discourse in public; oration; harangue. The member has made his first speech in the legislature. 7. Any declaration of thoughts. I, with leave of speech implor'd, repli'd.

SPEECH, v.i. To make a speech; to harangue. [Little used.]:

press:, n. 1. An instrument or machine by which any body is squeezed, crushed or forced into a more compact form; as a wine-press, cider-press or cheese-press. 2. A machine for printing; a printing-press. Great improvements have been lately made in the construction of presses. 3. The art or business of printing and publishing. A free press is a great blessing to a free people; a licentious press is a curse to society. 4. A crowd; a throng; a multitude of individuals crowded together. And when they could not come nigh to him for the press--Mark 2. 5. The act of urging or pushing forward. Which in their throng and press to the last hold, Confound themselves. 6. A wine-vat or cistern. Hag.2. 7. A case of closet for the safe keeping of garments. 8. Urgency; urgent demands of affairs; as a press of business. 9. A commission to force men into public service, particularly into the navy; for impress. Press of sail, in navigation, is as much sail as the state of the wind will permit. Liberty of the press, in civil policy, is the free right of publishing books, pamphlets or papers without previous restraint; or the unrestrained right which every citizen enjoys of publishing his thoughts and opinions, subject only to punishment for publishing what is pernicious to morals or to the peace of the state.

right:, n. 1. Conformity to the will of God, or to his law, the perfect standard of truth and justice. In the literal sense, right is a straight line of conduct, and wrong a crooked one. Right therefore is rectitude or straightness, and perfect rectitude is found only in an infinite Being and his will. 2. Conformity to human laws, or to other human standard of truth, propriety or justice. When laws are definite, right and wrong are easily ascertained and understood. In arts, there are some principles and rules which determine what is right. In many things indifferent, or left without positive law, we are to judge what is right by fitness or propriety, by custom, civility or other circumstances. 3. Justice; that which is due or proper; as, to do right to every man. Long love to her has borne the faithful knight, and well deserv'd had fortune done him right. 4. Freedom from error; conformity with truth or fact. Seldom your opinions err, your eyes are always in the right. 5. Just claim; legal title; ownership; the legal power of exclusive possession and enjoyment. In hereditary monarchies, a right to the throne vests in the heir on the decease of the king. A deed vests the right of possession in the purchaser of land. Right and possession are very different things. We often have occasion to demand and sue for rights not in possession. 6. Just claim by courtesy, customs, or the principles of civility and decorum. Every man has a right to civil treatment. The magistrate has a right to respect. 7. Just claim by sovereignty; prerogative. God, as the author of all things, has a right to govern and dispose of them at his pleasure. 8. That which justly belongs to one. Born free, he sought his right. 9. Property; interest. A subject in his prince may claim a right. 10. Just claim; immunity; privilege. All men have a right to the secure enjoyment of life, personal safety, liberty and property. We deem the right of trial by jury invaluable, particularly in the case of crimes. Rights are natural, civil, political, religious, personal, and public. 11. Authority; legal power. We have no right to disturb others in the enjoyment of their religious opinions. 12. In the United States, a tract of land; or a share or proportion of property, as in a mine or manufactory. 13. The side opposite to the left; as on the right. Look to the right. 1. To rights, in a direct line; straight. [Unusual.] 2. Directly; soon. To set to rights, To put to rights, to put into good order; to adjust; to regulate what is out of order. Bill of rights, a list of rights; a paper containing a declaration of rights, or the declaration itself. Writ of right, a writ which lies to recover lands in fee simple, unjustly withheld from the true owner.

RIGHT, v.t. 1. To do justice to; to relieve from wrong; as, to right an injured person. 2. In seamen's language, to right a ship, is to restore her to an upright position from a careen. To right the helm, to place it in the middle of the ship.

people:, n. [L. populus.] 1. The body of persons who compose a community, town, city or nation. We say, the people of a town; the people of London or Paris; the English people. In this sense, the word is not used in the plural, but it comprehends all classes of inhabitants, considered as a collective body, or any portion of the inhabitants of a city or country. 2. The vulgar; the mass of illiterate persons. The knowing artist may judge better than the people. 3. The commonalty, as distinct from men of rank. Myself shall mount the rostrum in his favor, And strive to gain his pardon from the people. 4. Persons of a particular class; a part of a nation or community; as country people. 5. Persons in general; any persons indefinitely; like on in French, and man in Saxon. People were tempted to lend by great premiums and large interest. 6. A collection or community of animals. The ants are a people not strong, yet they prepare their meat in the summer. Prov.30. 7. When people signified a separate nation or tribe, it has the plural number. Thou must prophesy again before many peoples. Rev.10. 8. In Scripture, fathers or kindred. Gen.25. 9. The Gentiles. --To him shall the gathering of the people be. Gen.49.

peaceably:, adv. Without war; without tumult or commotion; without private feuds and quarrels. 1. Without disturbance; quietly; without agitation; without interruption.

to:, prep. 1. Noting motion towards a place; opposed to from, or placed after another word expressing motion towards. He is going to church. 2. Noting motion towards a state or condition. He is going to a trade; he is rising to wealth and honor. 3. Noting accord or adaptation; as an occupation suited to his taste; she has a husband to her mind. 4. Noting address or compellation, or the direction of a discourse. These remarks were addressed to a large audience. To you, my noble lord of Westmoreland; I pledge your grace. 5. Noting attention or application. Go, buckle to the law. Meditate upon these things; give yourself wholly to them. 1 Tim.4. 6. Noting addition. Add to your faith, virtue. 2 Pet.1. Wisdom he has, and to his wisdom, courage. 7. Noting opposition. They engaged hand to hand. 8. Noting amount, rising to. They met us, to the number of three hundred. 9. Noting proportion; as, three is to nine as nine is to twenty seven. It is ten to one that you will offend by your officiousness. 10. Noting possession or appropriation. We have a good seat; let us keep it to ourselves. 11. Noting perception; as a substance sweet to the taste; an event painful to the mind. 12. Noting the subject of an affirmation. I have a king's oath to the contrary. 13. In comparison of. All that they did was piety to this. 14. As far as. Few of the Esquimaux can count to ten. 15. Noting intention. --Marks and points out each man of us to slaughter. [In this sense, for is now used.] 16. After an adjective, noting the object; as deaf to the cries of distress; alive to the sufferings of the poor. He was attentive to the company or to the discourse. 17. Noting obligation; as duty to God and to our parents. 18. Noting enmity; as a dislike to spiritus liquors. 19. Towards; as, she stretched her arms to heaven. 20. Noting effect or end. The prince was flattered to his ruin. He engaged in a war to this cost. Violent factions exist to the prejudice of the state. Numbers were crowded to death. 21. To, as a sign of the infinitive, precedes the radical verb. Sometimes it is used instead of the ancient form, for to, noting purpose. David in his life time intended to build a temple. The legislature assembles annually to make and amend laws. The court will sit in February to try some important causes. 22. It precedes the radical verb after adjectives, noting the object; as ready to go; prompt to obey; quick to hear, but slow to censure. 23. It precedes the radical verb, noting the object. The delay of our hopes teaches us to mortify our desires. 24. It precedes the radical verb, noting consequence. I have done my utmost to lead my life so pleasantly as to forget my misfortunes. 25. It notes extent, degree or end. He languishes to death, even to death. The water rises to the highth of twenty feet. The line extends from one end to the other. 26. After the substantive verb, and with the radical verb, it denotes futurity. The construction, we are to meet at ten o'clock, every man at death is to receive the reward of his deeds, is a particular form of expressing future time. 27. After have, it denotes duty or necessity. I have a debt to pay on Saturday. 28. To-day, to-night, to-morrow, are peculiar phrases derived from our ancestors. To in the two first, has the sense or force of this; this day, this night. In the last, it is equivalent to in or on; in or on the morrow. The words may be considered as compounds, to-day, to-night, to-morrow, and usually as adverbs. But sometimes they are used as nouns; as, to-day is ours. To and from, backward and forward. In this phrase, to is adverbial. To the face, in presence of; not in the absence of. I withstood him face to face. Gal.2. To-morrow, to-morrow, and to-morrow, Creeps in this petty pace from day to day. [Note.--In the foregoing explanation of to, it is to be considered that the definition given is not always the sense of to by itself, but the sense rather of the word preceding it, or connected with it, or of to in connection with other words. In general, to is used in the sense of moving towards a place, or towards an object, or it expresses direction towards a place, end, object or purpose.] To is often used adverbially to modify the sense of verbs; as, to come to; to heave to. The sense of such phrases is explained under the verbs respectively. In popular phrases like the following, "I will not come; you shall to, or too, a genuine Saxon phrase, to denotes moreover, besides, L. insuper.

assemble: ASSEM'BLE, v.t. [L. simul.] To collect a number of individuals or particulars into one place, or body; to bring or call togethe; to convene; to congregate. ASSEM'BLE, v.i. To meet or come together; to convene, as a number of individuals.

and:, conj. And is a conjunction, connective or conjoining word. It signifies that a word or part of a sentence is to be added to what precedes. Thus, give me an apple and an orange; that is, give me an apple, add or give in addition to that, an orange. John and Peter and James rode to New York, that is, John rode to New York; add or further, Peter rode to New York; add James rode to New York.

petition: PETI'TION, n. [L. petitio, from peto, to ask, properly to urge or press.] 1. In a general sense, a request, supplication or prayer; but chiefly and appropriately, a solemn or formal supplication; a prayer addressed by a person to the Supreme Being, for something needed or desired, or a branch or particular article of prayer. 2. A formal request or supplication, verbal or written; particularly, a written supplication from an inferior to a superior, either to a single person clothed with power, or to a legislative or other body, soliciting some favor, grant, right or mercy. 3. The paper containing a supplication or solicitation. Much of the time of our legislative bodies is consumed in attending to private petitions. The speaker's table is often loaded with petitions. Petitions to the king of Great Britain must contain nothing reflecting on the administration.

PETI'TION, v.t. To make a request to; to ask from; to solicit; particularly, to make supplication to a superior for some favor or right; as, to petition the legislature; to petition a court of chancery. The mother petitioned her goddess to bestow on them the greatest gift that could be given.

government:, n. Direction; regulation. These precepts will serve for the government of our conduct. 1. Control; restraint. Men are apt to neglect the government of their temper and passions. 2. The exercise of authority; direction and restraint exercised over the actions of men in communities, societies or states; the administration of public affairs, according to established constitution, laws and usages, or by arbitrary edicts. Prussia rose to importance under the government of Frederick II. 3. The exercise of authority by a parent or householder. Children are often ruined by a neglect of government in parents. Let family government be like that of our heavenly Father, mild, gentle and affectionate. 4. The system of polity in a state; that form of fundamental rules and principles by which a nation or state is governed, or by which individual members of a body politic are to regulate their social actions; a constitution, either written or unwritten, by which the rights and duties of citizens and public officers are prescribed and defined; as a monarchial government, or a republican government. Thirteen governments thus founded on the natural authority of the people alone, without the pretence of miracle or mystery, are a great point gained in favor of the rights of mankind. 5. An empire, kingdom or state; any territory over which the right of sovereignty is extended. 6. The right of governing or administering the laws. The king of England vested the government of Ireland in the lord lieutenant. 7. The persons or council which administer the laws of a kingdom or state; executive power. 8. Manageableness; compliance; obsequiousness. 9. Regularity of behavior. [Not in use.] 10. Management of the limbs or body. [Not in use.] 11. In grammar, the influence of a word in regard to construction,as when established usage required that one word should cause another to be in a particular case or mode.

for:, prep. [L. per.; The English, for; to forbid. For corresponds in sense with the L. pro, as fore does with proe, but pro and proe are probably contracted from prod, proed. The Latin por, in composition, as in porrigo, is probably contracted from porro, Gr. which is the English far. The Gr. are from the same root. The radical sense of for is to go, to pass, to advance, to reach or stretch.] 1. Against; in the place of; as a substitute or equivalent, noting equal value or satisfactory compensation, either in barter and sale, in contract, or in punishment. "And Joseph gave them bread in exchange for horses, and for flocks, and for the cattle of the herds;" that is, according to the original, he gave them bread against horses like the Gr. Gen. 48:17. Buy us and our land for bread. Gen. 47:19. And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot. Ex. 21. 2. In the place of; instead of; noting substitution of persons, or agency of one in the place of another with equivalent authority. An attorney is empowered to act for his principal. Will you take a letter and deliver it for me at the post office? that is, in my place, or for my benefit. 3. In exchange of; noting one thing taken or given in place of another; as, to quit the profession of law for that of a clergyman. 4. In the place of; instead of; as, to translate a poem line for line. 5. In the character of; noting resemblance; a sense derived from substitution or standing in the place of, like in the Greek. If a man can be fully assured of any thing for a truth, without having examined, what is there that he may not embrace for truth? But let her go for an ungrateful woman. I hear for certain, and do speak the truth. He quivered with his feet and lay for dead. 6. Towards; with the intention of going to. We sailed directly for Genoa, and had a fair wind. So we say, a ship is bound for or to France. 7. In advantage of; for the sake of; on account of; that is, towards, noting use, benefit or purpose. An ant is a wise creature for itself. Shall I think the world was made for one, and men are born for kings, as beasts for men, not for protection, but to be devoured. 8. Conducive to; beneficial to; in favor of. It is for the general good of human society, and consequently of particular persons, to be true and just; and it is for men's health to be temperate. 9. Leading or inducing to, as a motive. There is a natural immutable, and eternal reason for that which we call virtue, and against that which we call vice. 10. Noting arrival, meeting, coming or possession. Wait patiently for an expected good. So in the phrases, looking for, staying for. 11. Towards the obtaining of; in order to the arrival at or possession of. After all our exertions, we depend on divine aid for success. 12. Against; in opposition to; with a tendency to resist and destroy; as a remedy for the headache or toothache. Alkalies are good for the heartburn. So we say, to provide clothes or stores for winter, or against winter. 13. Against or on account of; in prevention of. She wrapped him close for catching cold. And, for the time shall not seem tedious - This use is nearly obsolete. The sense however is derived from meeting, opposing, as in number 12. 14. Because; on account of; by reason of. He cried out for anguish. I cannot go for want of time. For this cause, I cannot believe the report. That which we for our unworthiness are afraid to crave, our prayer is, that God for the worthiness of his son would notwithstanding vouchsafe to grant. Edward and Richard, with fiery eyes sparkling for very wrath, are at our backs. How to choose dogs for scent or speed. For as much as it is a fundamental law - 15. With respect or regard to; on the part of. It was young counsel for the persons, and violent counsel for the matters. Thus much for the beginning and progress of the deluge. So we say, for me, for myself, or as for me, I have no anxiety, but for you I have apprehensions; all implying towards or on the side of. 16. Through a certain space; during a certain time; as, to travel for three days; to sail for seven weeks; he holds his office for life; he traveled on sand for ten miles together. These senses seem to imply passing, the proper sense of for. 17. In quest of; in order to obtain; as, to search for arguments; to recur to antiquity for examples. See number 11. 18. According to; as far as. Chimists have not been able, for aught is vulgarly known, by fire alone to separate true sulphur from antimony. 19. Noting meeting, coming together, or reception. I am ready for you; that is, I am ready to meet or receive you. 20. Towards; of tendency to; as an inclination for drink. 21. In favor of; on the part or side of; that is, towards or inclined to. One is for a free government; another is for a limited monarchy. Aristotle is for poetical justice. 22. With a view to obtain; in order to possess. He writes for money, or for fame; that is, towards meeting, or to have in return, as a reward. 23. Towards; with tendency to, or in favor of. It is for his honor to retire from office. It is for our quiet to have few intimate connections. 24. Notwithstanding; against; in opposition to. The fact may be so, for any thing that has yet appeared. The task is great, but for all that, I shall not be deterred from undertaking it. This is a different application of the sense of numbers 1,2,3,4. The writer will do what she pleases for all me. 25. For the use of; to be used in; that is, towards, noting advantage. The oak for nothing ill, the osier good for twigs, the poplar for the mill. 26. In recompense of; in return of. Now, for so many glorious actions done, for peace at home, and for the public wealth, I mean to crown a bowl for Caesar's health. [See Number 1.] 27. In proportion to; or rather, looking towards, regarding. He is tall for one of his years, or tall for his age. 28. By means of. Moral consideration can no way move the sensible appetite, were it not for the will. 29. By the want of. The inhabitants suffered severely both for provisions and fuel. 30. For my life or heart, though my life were to be given in exchange, or as the price of purchase. I cannot, for my life, understand the man. Number 1. 31. For to, denoting purpose. For was anciently placed before the infinitives of verbs, and the use is correct, but now obsolete except in vulgar language. I came for to see you; pour vous voir.

FOR, con. 1. The word by which a reason is introduced of something before advanced. "That ye may be the children of your father who is in heaven; for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good." In such sentences, for has the sense of because, by reason that, as in Number 14; with this difference that in Number 14, the word precedes a single noun, and here it precedes a sentence or clause; but the phrase seems to be elliptical, for this cause or reason, which follows, he maketh his sun to rise, &c. In Romans 13:6, we find the word in both its applications, "For, for this cause ye pay tribute also -;" the first for referring to the sentence following; the latter to the noun cause. 2. Because; on this account that; properly, for that. For as much, compounded, forasmuch, is equivalent to, in regard to that, in consideration of. Forasmuch as the thirst is intolerable, the patient may be indulged in a little drink.

a: A is the first letter of the Alphabet in most of the known languages of the earth; in the Ethiopic, however it is the thirteenth, and in the Runic the tenth. It is naturally the first letter, because it represents the first vocal sound naturally formed by the human organs; being the sound uttered with a mere opening of the mouth without constraint, and without any effort to alter the natural position or configuration of the lips. The A has been proven to be the first natural vocal sound, and entitled to the first place in alphabets.
A has in English, three sounds; the long or slender, as in place, fate; the broad, as in wall, fall, which is shortened in salt, what; and the open, as in father, glass, which is shortened in rather, fancy. Its primitive sound was probably aw. A is also an abbreviation used before words beginning with an articulation; as a table, instead of an table, or one table. This is a modern change.
This letter serves as a prefix to many English words, as in asleep; awake; afoot; aground; agoing. In some cases, this is a contraction of Teutonic ge, as in asleep, aware, from the Saxon geslapan, to sleep, to beware. Sometimes it is a corruption of the Saxon on, as again from ongean, awake from onwacian to watch or wake. Before participles, it may be a contraction of the Celtic ag, the sign of the participle of the present tense; as, ag-radh, saying; a saying, a going. Or this may be a contraction of on, or what is equally probable, it may have proceeded from a mere accidental sound produced by negligent utterance. In some words, a may be a contraction of at, of, in, to, or an. In some words of Greek original, a is privative, giving to them a negative sense, as in anonymous.
Among the ancients, A was a numeral denoting 500, and with a dash A 5000. In the Julian Calendar, A is the first of the seven dominical letters.
Among logicians, A, as an abbreviation, stands for a universal affirmative proposition. A asserts; E denies. Thus in barbara, a thrice repeated denotes so many of the propositions to be universal.
The Romans used A to signify a negative or dissent in giving their votes; A standing for antiquo, I oppose or object to the proposed law. Opposed to this letter were U R, uti rogas, be it as you desire - the words used to express assent to a proposition. These letters were marked on wooden ballots, and each voter had an affirmative and a negative put into his hands, one of which at pleasure he gave as his vote, - In criminal trials, A stood for absolvo, I acquit, C for condemno, I condemn; and N L for non liquet, it is not evident; and the judges voted by ballots this marked. In inscriptions, A stands for Augustus; or for ager, aiunt,, aurum, argentum, &c.
A is also used for anno, or ante; as in Anno Domini, the year of our Lord; anno mundi, the year of the world; ante meridiem, before noon, and for arts, in artium magister, master of arts.
In algebra, a and first letters of the alphabet represent known quantities - the last letters are sometimes used to represent unknown quantities. music, A is the nominal of the sixth note in the natural diatonic scale - called by Guido la. It is also the name of one of the two natural moods; and it is the open note of the 2d string of the violin, by which the other strings are tuned and regulated.
In pharmacy, a or aa, abbreviations of the Greek ana, signify of each separately, or that the things mentioned should be taken in quantities of the same weight or measure.
In chimistry, A A A stand for amalgama, or amalgamation.
In commerce, A stands for accepted, as in case of a bill of exchange. Merchants also number their books by the letters - A,B,C, instead of figures. Public officers number their exhibits in the same manner; as the document A, or B.
Alpha and Omega, the first and last letters of the Greek Alphabet, are used in Scripture for the beginning and end - representative of Christ.
In mathematics, letters are used as representatives of numbers, lines, angles and quantities. In arguments, letters are substituted for persons, in cases supposed, or stated for illustration, as A contracts with B to deliver property to D. - In the English phraseology "a landlord as a hundred a year," " the sum amounted to ten dollars a man," a is merely the adjective one, and this mode of expression is idiomatic; a hundred in a year; ten dollars to a man.

redress: REDRESS', v.t. 1. To set right; to amend. In yonder spring of roses, find what to redress till noon. [In this sense, as applied to material things, rarely used.] 2. To remedy; to repair; to relieve from, and sometimes to indemnify for; as, to redress wrongs; to redress injuries; to redress grievances. Sovereigns are bound to protect their subjects, and redress their grievances. 3. To ease; to relieve; as, she labored to redress my pain. [We use this verb before the person or the thing. We say, to redress an injured person, or to redress the injury. The latter is most common.]

REDRESS', n. 1. Reformation; amendment. For us the more necessary is a speedy redress of ourselves. [This sense is now unusual.] 2. Relief; remedy; deliverance from wrong, injury or oppression; as the redress of grievances. We applied to government, but could obtain no redress. There is occasion for redress when the cry is universal. 3. Reparation; indemnification. [This sense is often directly intended or implied in redress.] 4. One who gives relief. Fair majesty, the refuge and redress of those whom fate pursues and wants oppress.

grievances:, n. [from grief.] That which causes grief or uneasiness; that which burdens, oppresses or injures, implying a sense of wrong done, or a continued injury, and therefore applied only to the effects of human conduct; never to providential evils. The oppressed subject has the right to petition for a redress of grievances.

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